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Midterm Review: Key Words

Note the Early Due Date: by midnight, Wed., Oct. 2nd 

As part of your midterm review, I would like for you to post, as a comment to this entry, two key words or important concepts regarding the chapter/reading you’ve been assigned (see below). You are welcome to directly quote from the chapter to explain this concept; however, remember to always put in quotation marks words that you have taken word-for-word from your textbook and include a parenthetical with the page number. This is an individual assignment (you do not need to collaborate with the people also assigned to your chapter), and it is okay if there is some overlap in your selected key words. Ideally, though, you’ll each cover slightly different territory.

Chapter 1: Lee, Laura, and Ernest

Chapter 2: Rachel, Jon, and Mark

Chapter 3: Wil, Brandon, and Allysa M.

Chapter 4: Shelby, Nick, and Crystal

Chapter 7: Arrie, Diana, and Sarah Joy

Copyright, Fair Use, Creative Commons (pages 278-290 and our guest lecture): Deyanna, Johnnae, Jessica, and Alysia W.

“Supersaturation, or the Media Torrent and Disposable Feeling (on D2L): Kyle and Mary

“The First Law of Data Smog” (on D2L): Raheem and Jaleesa

“Convergence and Its Consequences” (on D2L): Shane and LaSonya

If you choose to attend class on Wednesday, I will give you time to complete this assignment during class. I invite you to read each others’ comments to this post as a way of studying for your exam, though you are still responsible for material that your peers may not post in their key words/concepts. This assignment is due early (Wednesday night instead of our typical Friday night) so that you can read your peers’ comments and begin studying. Feel free to include any questions you have as you are studying and I will try to answer them in a comment back to the class.


About Ashley Holmes

Associate Professor of English (Rhetoric and Composition), Georgia State University


25 thoughts on “Midterm Review: Key Words

  1. Live Blogging- “live blogging provides a near real-time and, therefore, visceral account of the event, usually from a single point of view, that of the blogger.” (Carroll, 156)

    Weblog or blog- “a Web page or site for frequently updated posts, or entries, that typically are arranged or presented in reverse chronological order, so that the new entries always appear on the top.” (Carroll, 137-138)

    *”Other common attributes of blogs include archives, permalinks, (or hyperlinks to specific posts, which, when clicked, usually present accompanying comments beneath the post), time stamps and date headers, tags (key word identification), and blogrolls ( hyperlinked lists of and to other blogs, usually presented as a sidebar to the blog’s main content).” ( Carroll, 137-138)

    Posted by srichards9 | September 30, 2013, 4:06 pm
  2. The four functions of trademarks: 1) “To identify and distinguish a product, brand or company.” 2) “To signify or verify that the product or service is made or provided by the company or entity signified by the mark.” 3) “To signify or identify the relative quality of that brand or company, through not specifically “high quality” merely a certain level or degree of quality.” 4) “To serve as instruments in advertising, marketing, and selling.” (Carroll 279-280) Examples: Kleenex, Rollerblade, and BandAid

    Patents- “Protect and encourage technological development. If your invention were not protected, perhaps you would not share it. We could not benefit from nor improve upon it. Patents cover inventions, secrets, discoveries, utility and design.” (Carroll 279)

    Plagiarism- “The act of taking ideas, thoughts or words from someone else and passing them off as your own.” Additionally, plagiarism is the latin-term for “kidnapping.” (Carroll 279)

    Sean’s Copyright Presentation:
    Q: What can be copyrighted?
    A: “‘Original works of authorship,’ including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works.” (Copyright Basics–from the Library of Congress Copyright site:http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ01.pdf)

    Posted by deyanna1 | September 30, 2013, 4:42 pm
  3. Hyperlink: text that redirects a reader to another page with different, but related information. Allows the reader to control how a text is read.Hypertext allows for more interactivity on the part of the reader.

    Headers: Headers and sub-headers should act like road signs on a page. They show the reader where the information they want to read is located and where to avoid information they do not want to read.

    Posted by smckenzie8 | September 30, 2013, 8:34 pm
  4. Chapter 1:

    The Principles of Good Writing:
    1. Be brief. This means making sure what you are writing is clear and concise. “Prune your prose.”
    2. Be precise. Use the word that exactly defines what you are trying to say rather than a substitute that misconstrues your meaning. This essentially means you should always have a dictionary and a thesaurus close at hand!
    3. Be Active. This means active over passive voice. “The boy hit the ball” rather than “the ball was hit by the bat.”
    4. Be Imaginative. Avoid cliches and use metaphors and similes correctly.
    5. Be Direct. (See a work by Hemingway for a prime example!)
    6. Be Consistent. Use parallel structure and ensure that your sentences are balanced.
    7. Be Aware. See pg. 12 for things you need to watch out for while writing.
    8. Be Concise. See point one.

    Getting ideas:
    1. Brainstorming: spending time writing ideas related to your task to find the perfect story or idea.
    2. Clustering: A visual form of brainstorming—ideas radiate from a central area on a page
    3. Free write: Write, write, write—and write whatever comes to mind

    Posted by lauracapperson | October 1, 2013, 6:54 pm
  5. Copyright:
    According to US copyright law, copyrights protect: “All works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression.” This extends to writings, paintings, music, drama, recordings and was meant to encourage encourage innovation and learning (as original British law hints at). Copyright laws are a modern innovation, not really considered necessary until after the the invention of the printing press. This is because printing innovations affected the ease and speed of duplication, creating the likelihood of plagiarism and re-attribution. In the US, modern copyright law extends rights to the copyright owner for a total of 70 years. Before 1978, copyright protection needed to be requested through registration or renewal, but after 1978 laws changed, making the copyright an opt-out system which automatically grants copyright to works once they are placed in a fixed medium. (Carroll, 281-283)

    Creative Commons:
    Creative Commons is a non-profit that was created to re-spark the original intent of copyright law, trying to make it easier to share works for the purpose of sparking creativity and aiding innovation and learning. Works registered through Creative Commons are imbued with “a flexible range of protections,” all of the owners’ choosing. Options include: the choice to keep the work originally intact, without possibility for changing or re-purposing; the freedom to change works for use in other creative ventures; the stipulation that original credit must be given at all times; the choice to make the work commercially for monetary gain, or to deny this same option. Additional information can bee found at creativecommons.org. People wishing to upload materials to creative commons must define how their work will be used and those borrowing works agree to the terms set forth.

    Posted by jrose18 | October 2, 2013, 8:44 am
    • Creative commons information was put together through notes and a visit to the website. The above quoted information is found at their website under the FAQ. CORRECTION: the word “available” was omitted from the phrase “the choice to make the work commercially [available] for monetary gain.” –JR

      Posted by jrose18 | October 2, 2013, 8:49 am
  6. * The 3 important roles of the writer of any content (digital or print) is [C.O.I]: (pg. 23)
    – Communicator of a message: “How many websites fail to make a point? The skilled web writer conveys a message in provocative, clever, amusing, interesting or profound ways.”
    – Organizer of information: “Decisions must be made about what is most important, and, in leaving information out, what is not important enough. Good web writers help readers make order out of all the information.”
    – Interpreter: “The message has to be right for the medium, tailored to leverage the medium’s strengths and to mitigate its weaknesses.”

    * Identification (pg. 26)
    “Identification is a key communication concept that helps us understand how blogs can generate trust from readers. Since the writing of Aristotle, communication theorists have focused on the role of persuasion in public discourse; however, Kenneth Burke introduced the new concept of identification, and said, ‘You persuade a man insofar as you talk his language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, ideas, identifying your way with his’. Burke said that humans are uniquely individualized beings, but when their interests are joined, then identification occurs.”

    On page 27: “The ‘everyday person’ voice of many blogs encourages identification versus the dispassionate, clinical voice of traditional media.”

    Posted by edgarjon | October 2, 2013, 9:40 am
  7. Ch. 7 Keyword and Concept

    1. What makes a GOOD BLOG?
    a) it is “updated frequently.”
    b) recent posts are at the top.
    c) identifying blogs with key words or tags (154-155).

    a) publish a fact when it is truth and state if something is merely a speculation
    b) Link to references whenever possible
    c) “publicly correct any misinformation”
    d) refrain from deleting information once entry is published
    e) state if there is a “conflict of interest” and act independently
    f) state if there are any “questionable or biased sources.”
    g) promote interactivity and freedom of expression
    h) do not harm
    i) take “responsibility for you own words”

    Posted by dianarad | October 2, 2013, 10:04 am
  8. Chapter 3 – Screen Writing

    GENERAL STYLE: Visual design must be utilized to allow for each page to stand alone in comparison to written pages working together as a whole.

    WRITING STYLE: Readers of web articles read slower than written. This can be advantageous in working around large chunks of text. “Chunking” of text should be avoided by breaking up large blocks into one to two sentance “paragraphs”.

    TONE: The tone of online writing should avoid marketing at all costs. “Short sentences, active verbs, direct statements, and inverted pyramid presentations help to maintain the right tone.”

    PLAN ENGLISH WANTED: When writing online, be aware that the online medium is a global medium. Try to write clear and concise. “Avoid slang, idioms, cliches, colloquial expressions, and phrasal verbs.”

    VISUAL STYLE: “Visitors should be able to easily return to the home page from anywhere in the site. Provide information in the fewest possible steps. Graphics, multimedia and hyperlinks should be used deliberately. Interface metaphors, like the envelope icon for email, should be simple, familiar and logical to the audience.”

    SIMPLICITY: Keep websites simple and uncluttered. This will allow for the reader to be more attentive to the information you are trying to convey through visual rhetoric. (i.e. Minimalism of Google.com)

    Posted by whughes4 | October 2, 2013, 12:28 pm
  9. Ch. 2:

    “Communicator, Organizer, and Interpreter rely upon the writer’s credibility.”(p.25) Digital writing’s credibility is increasingly more important and having “believability” and “community affiliation” will help combat the anonymity that the web can bring.
    Believability is about presenting “accurate, unbiased, and complete accounts” of information. (p.25)
    Community affiliation is trying to unify a community and lead it into some sort of harmony.
    The best way to prove credibility is by making a “easy-to-use”, “high-quality graphics” and “good writing.”Also make sure to have full contact information and expertise in the area you are writing about. (p.28)

    Posted by racheljcoffee | October 2, 2013, 12:41 pm
  10. There are limitations is limitations to the copyright holder’s rights. For example, copies of an original work, government documents and the like are not covered by the copy rights, copy right’s expired or it is covered by FAIR USE. Fair Use rules govern the author’s rights to compensation for work. the following use of Copy righted work are considered acceptable:
    -small excepts from the work, (150 words or less)
    -use for the advancement of ideas, education and the general gain of knowledge.

    Additionally pgs. 278-290 cover Trademarks and Patents along side copyright. Trademarks cover symbols, word, catch phases, slogans and the similar,; they are typically obtained by companies to protect their Brand. Patents are usually obtained by those developing products or advancing technology and protect the ideas and work of those working on these ideas.This also helps with intellectual property theft to some extent.

    Posted by alysiawatson | October 2, 2013, 5:49 pm
  11. Ch. 1
    Principles of Good Writing
    1. Be brief: make sure your writing is a clear as possible.
    2. Be precise: use the word that means what you want it to mean.
    3. Be active: passive voice is rarely appropriate.
    4. Be imaginative: use analogies, similes, and metaphors. However, make sure they are not mixed metaphors and avoid clichés.
    5. Be direct: “A short sentence can affect emphasis and power in writing” (11).
    6. Be consistent: Parallel structure is important; sentences should be balanced.
    7. Be aware: Avoid the common mistakes found on page 12.
    8. Be concise. Just do it!

    To determine your purpose:
    • Brainstorm: write down whatever comes to mind. It might seem trivial at first, but could be useful later on.
    • Cluster: a more visual brainstorm.
    • Free write: write down your task at the top of the page. Then, jot down all of the things that come to mind below it. This can include “sources, questions to pursue and things not to do” (16).

    Posted by yayitslee | October 2, 2013, 7:25 pm
  12. The first law of Data Smog consist of the overwhelming access to data and less time to process it. The increasing amount of data becomes pollutant . “Until the mid-20th century , more information was generally seen as a good thing; now we produce information much faster than we are able to process it.” Information now is seen as a lot cheaper than before to produce, manipulate and disseminate. Everything becomes easy with a click of copy and paste. Data smog it crowds society with more data that is accessible 24/7 and more immediate demand of data.

    More info is on D2L. 158pg

    Posted by Jaleesa Thompson | October 2, 2013, 8:40 pm
  13. Copyright, Fair Use, Creative Commons
    Copyright: Applies to writing, paintings, music, drama, and recordings; does NOT protect the idea themselves.
    Patents: Protect and encourage technological development.
    Trademark: Protect words, symbols, devices or combinations of these three. Used to make a company, or the goods and services recognizable. They identify and distinguish a product, brand or company. Also used to signify or verify that the product or service is made or provided by the mark. They signify or identify the relative quality of that brand or company. They serve as instruments in advertising, marketing, and selling.
    Plagarism: The act of taking ideas, thoughts or words from someone else and passing them off as your own is plagiarism; comes from the Latin term for, “kidnapping.”
    Six permutations or specific rights: reproductions, derivative works, public distribution, public performance, public display, public digital performance of a sound recording
    NOT covered: trivial materials, ideas, utilitarian goods, book titles, list of ingredients, standard calendars and rulers, methods, systems, math principles, formulae, equations and the periodic chart of elements, anything that does not offer its origin to the author.
    Copyright holders: have 5 distinct rights
    • Copy
    • Distribute
    • Display
    • Perform
    • Create derivative works
    Fair Use: limitation on a copyright holder’s exclusive rights.
    The U.S. Government: the world’s biggest publisher
    All webpages, email messages and newsgroup messages are copyrighted unless stated otherwise

    Posted by johnnaesroberts | October 2, 2013, 10:02 pm
  14. Saturation:
    The flow of images and sounds: twenty-first century’s images and sounds are much different than seventeenth century’s. Todays images and sounds come from televisions, radios, videotapes, VCRs, digital screens, computers, video games, and all sorts of media. The images and sounds are created with the help of words, numbers, symbols and phrases. Today’s images and sounds could be the top two things that attract a person every day. Today’s generation has grown up in a society where certain images have specific meanings while sounds are added to help out the images. Ads that are on billboards are simply images and can get a point across as much as a television advertisement.

    Television use in America: In a research that was conducted, watching TV is the number one leisure activity that Americans admitted to doing. At least 40 percent of American’s time is consumed by watching television. This can be seen as half the time of a person’s day. Sex, gender and origin do not play a huge role when determining who watches more television. There is little difference between the categories. However, the lower the median income for the family and the lower the education level is for each member, the higher the chances are of that family spending time on television. Watching television is not aimed at just one race and effects the lives of all Americans. Kids tend to watch television a lot more and this determines the future, because our children are the future. The number of advertisements a person sees a day is going to rise year by year.

    Posted by Mary Shepard | October 2, 2013, 10:04 pm
  15. “Convergence: the integration of computing, telecommunication, and broadcast media in a single digital environment.” It is revolutionizing mass media and communication.

    “Hyperlink: a word, graphic, or image that is linked through HTML code to another web page or media element either within the same Web site or in a different web site on the World Wide Web.”

    Posted by stuchscherer | October 2, 2013, 10:20 pm
  16. Chapter 3: Online Style and Techniques

    *CLEAR: used interchangeably with “clarity”, “simplicity”, and/or “conciseness”. All online writing (including website navigation) should be clear, easily understood, and straight to the point. Reason being, the viewer of the website will more than likely only scan the document, so whatever is being said needs to be short and sweet so that the reader doesn’t lose interest quickly. Online reading is not leisurely, so muddled, complicated readings will practically scare off the average online reader.
    Navigation of a website should also be clear. Links should be working, and navigation among pages should be simple.

    *STORYBOARD: or “storyboarding”, the easiest way to ensure that a website will be created with minimal flaws and maximum functionality. Before creating a website, one should plan the site, and then create a type of visual outline, or a “storyboard,” that will tell how viewers can easily navigate from one page to another without confusion. Time is wasted when one tries to create a website that flows easily, but does not build a storyboard first.

    Posted by amalone84 | October 2, 2013, 10:42 pm
  17. Chapter 1

    Revision: Revision is the most timely part of the writing process. It allows you to place your entire rough draft under a microscope. You should re-draft your introduction to see if you can come up with a better way to start you paper. You should also do the same with your conclusion. Check for consistency and conciseness and all of the other principles needed for good writing. Make sure your paper flows in the direction that you want it to go in, and that it details the point that you want to make. Check for grammar mistakes such as noun-verb agreement and punctuation errors. Keep in mind that the main objectives for revising are to re-consider, critique and question.

    Outline and Story boarding: The outline is the foundation and blueprint to building your masterpiece writing. This is where you combine the answers to your basic questions and design it in the way that you want to present it to the readers. This can be used as a great organizational tool for your writing. As you continue on with your writing, know that this foundation in not concrete and can be changed. it has many stages after it such as rough-draft and revision and both may alter the early outline.

    Posted by eaquil1 | October 2, 2013, 10:46 pm
  18. Convergence, Saturation, and Data Smog

    1.) Media Saturation – The immense influence of media (such as images, the internet, television) being made readily available within our everyday lives that creates a pervasive expectation of data, ‘an accompaniment to life that has become a central part of life’.

    2.) Media Torrent – The unlimited flow of media itself originating from an expectation of images and audio to appear on command as a normal part of our everyday lives (as a result of economic growth and a personal desire for information).

    Posted by Kyle Robotham | October 2, 2013, 10:53 pm
  19. Data Smog: The ubiquity of information, particularly unwanted information. When data is presented faster than it can be processed, the resulting overabundance can lead to mental fatigue.

    Signal-to-noise Ratio: The comparison of the amount of desired sound compared with the amount of background, and in some cases foreground, noise. Technically an audio engineering term, the philosophy of maximizing what is critical while minimizing “noise” can be easily applied to composition.

    Posted by rsmith148 | October 2, 2013, 11:13 pm
  20. Blogging – the act of logging your thoughts, reports, observations, or really any type of writing in a digital forum. It is also, and probably most notably, the easiest way for an aspiring and/or unknown writer to expose themselves to a much larger audience.

    Blogging “Rules” – Everything from honest journalism to fresh content. It is important to be well-rounded in all aspects of this department to keep your reader engaged, to be a viable source of information, and to ensure the content of your blog is conveyed to the reader in the most effective way possible. Sticking to a few basic principles of blogging can also help the author portray their material in both a marketable and professional manner.

    Posted by Arrie Oliver | October 2, 2013, 11:29 pm
  21. Convergence is the coming together of computing, telecommunications, and media in the digital environment. Convergence and the changes it is bringing are fundamentally changing many aspects of mass media and communication…

    • which has dramatic implications that fall into four categories: (1) the content of communication; (2) the relationships between media organizations and their publics; (3) the structure of communication organizations; (4) how communications professionals do their work
    • although there will continue to be “mass” communication, in the sense that media companies and others will continue to produce messages for large audiences, frequently the members of those audiences may receive messages tailored to each individual, and audiences will become much more active in their engagement with mediated communication than they have been
    • convergence is in some ways fuelling media concentration, by leading traditional media giants to join with an online colossus
    • analog and digital media are rapidly being consolidated into an oligopoly
    • the centralized control over the signs and symbols of mediated communication can threaten the numbers and types of different voices heard on the Web
    • just as the differences between print, video, and audio disappear in a digital media world, so will the divisions between print and electronic journalists, advertising and public relations professional

    Additional Terms:

    Hyperlink – a word, graphic, or image that is linked through HTML code to another Web page or media element either within the same Web site or in a different Web site on the World Wide Web
    Oligopoly – an economic structure in which a few very large, very powerful, and very rich owners control an industry or series of related industries
    Peer-to-peer (P2P) – a computer communications model in which all users have equal abilities to store, send, and accept communications from other users

    Posted by LaSonya Walters | October 2, 2013, 11:39 pm
  22. Chapter 4: Headlines and Hyperlinks

    Hyperlinks should be obvious and unambiguous; readers should know exactly what they will find by clicking, enabling them to decide whether to click now, later or not at all. The links themselves should be explicit about the type of content to which they lead, and they should be consistent in appearance. p.75

    Headlines first and foremost should inform rather than entertain, particularly because the audience online is potentially a global one. Conciseness and accuracy should not be sacrificed for personality, therefore. For the same reason, abbreviations, slang, idioms, colloquialisms and puns generally should be avoided. The “just the facts” style of most headlines doesn’t win prizes for originality, but it does help a reader make an intelligent decision about whether to stop and read or to keep moving. p.81

    Posted by coke12013 | October 3, 2013, 12:47 am
  23. Transparency- (Pg 27) Blog readers respond to authors’ willingness to disclose their personal politics and biases, their readiness to acknowledge error and to incorporate or consider new information, and to acknowledge error and to incorporate or consider new information, and the sharing of and pointing to original source materials that go into their posts.

    Readability and Scanability- (Pg 31) Web users scan content rather than reading word for word. Scanners need clues, signposts and highlights, so content should be shaped for scanning. This means, among other things, using headings deckhands, subheads, hyperlinks, lists and some changes in front or type. Though publishing space is theoretical unlimited online, long blocks of text will simply not be read.

    Posted by douggilliam88 | October 3, 2013, 12:49 am
  24. Chapter 3: Screenwriting


    Site planning (pg.66): or “mapping”. When planning a site, think about how the different components used will correspond with each other. It should be a mutually beneficial relationship on the page. A site map “either lists or…graphically presents the pages and sections of a site, with lines connecting those pages and sections that will link to one another.”

    Storyboarding (pg. 66): Much like in a comic book/graphic novel, to continue planning the visual flow of a web design there must be a series of storyboards. The term “comes from a practice in filmmaking in which story conceivers graphically map out the content of the movie (story) on a series of placards or posters.” These are “crude representations” of what will compose the web site visually.

    Posted by diobrando777 | October 4, 2013, 12:32 pm

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